Debian Installation :: "Signing Keys" / Verify The File With MD-5, SHA-256?

Mar 31, 2011

Anyone attempting to install Debian Squeeze from CD-1, or Debian-live DVD will want to know how to verify the file with MD-5, SHA-256 and (available for some versions only) SHA-512 checksums of the iso images, using the appropriate signing key. But there are no instructions that I can find in the Debian CD FAQ, which simply points users at the archive keyring. Now according to this message, as of 9 Feb 2011 the Debian Squeeze archive signing key has fingerprint 9FED 2BCB DCD2 9CDF 7626  78CB AED4 B06F 4730 41FA

The Debian signing key website gives the archive signing key as the master key, and (this addresses the problem I raised elsewhere) even makes it available via https. That sounds good! Just one problem: the detached signatures for files such as url

which gives the SHA-256 sum for url

have been signed with a different key, which has fingerprint DF9B 9C49 EAA9 2984 3258  9D76 DA87 E80D 6294 BE9B

No wonder I am confused! And it seems that I may not be the only one; others seem to be confused also.

If no-one at the Debian mailing list can explain what is going on, I have little hope that anyone here will be able to clear this up, but I'll ask anyway: what are all the Debian related GPG keys and where do you find them all? is it true that there are different keys needed to verify CD iso images and debs? (And... what else?) where do you go to obtain all the lastest Debian keys via https? (This is important as it can hinder MITM attacks by lone crackers, assorted crooks, maybe even state actors, etc.; the "Comodogate" story provides clear evidence that there are people or organizations interested in mounting MITM attacks on persons downloading open-source software). in particular, it is sometimes convenient to use a live-CD to download an iso image (for example, when you no longer trust the system you are trying to upgrade!) and then one wants to use GPG to check the file with the checksum, so one needs to quickly locate and import into the GPG keyring of the (temporary) live-CD session the correct key; so where can I find the CD-signing key availalble via https? shouldn't the CD FAQ explain all this?

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Ubuntu :: Archive Automatic Signing Keys 10.10?

May 14, 2011

Initially I had a problem installing restricted extras. However, it appears the problem is more than a media problem, so I moved my thread here. I copied over what I thought the relevant code was from my previous thread. Anyone have ideas on how I can fix this?

onoku@onoku-MacBook:~$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
[sudo] password for onoku:


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Jun 9, 2015

I need to renew my SSL cert for my Mahara site and I follow the instructions below. But after I finish answering all the questions for the csr, I'm supposed to copy a portion of the cert into a web form. However I can't seem to find the server.csr so I can do this. Were this file goes?

Here is a step-by-step description:

Make sure OpenSSL is installed and in your PATH.

Create a RSA private key for your Apache server (will be Triple-DES encrypted and PEM formatted):

$ openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024

Please backup this server.key file and the pass-phrase you entered in a secure location. You can see the details of this RSA private key by using the command:

$ openssl rsa -noout -text -in server.key

If necessary, you can also create a decrypted PEM version (not recommended) of this RSA private key with:

$ openssl rsa -in server.key -out server.key.unsecure

Create a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) with the server RSA private key (output will be PEM formatted):

$ openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr

Make sure you enter the FQDN ("Fully Qualified Domain Name") of the server when OpenSSL prompts you for the "CommonName", i.e. when you generate a CSR for a website which will be later accessed via, enter "" here. You can see the details of this CSR by using:

$ openssl req -noout -text -in server.csr

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a stands for add
t stands for type definition
7z stands for 7z archive type


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Mar 26, 2011

I have been trying to figure out some way of installing Squeeze with some assurance that the new installation won't be pwned from Day One--- and so far I have had no success. Even worse, I have been having some strange problems using SSL in my existing Lenny installation which has been further hampering my efforts. And which may be consistent with the hypothesis that I am in fact being subjected to an on-going MITM attack when I try to install Squeeze over the net. This possibility has encouraged me to keep trying to take reasonable steps to ensure that key binaries in my forthcoming Squeeze have not been tampered with by the time I finish the initial installation. I am seeking steps that can be taken by an average user willing to follow directions written by an expert user.

I found a very interesting recent Debian Security mailing list thread which articulates some of the same concerns that I tried to express several weeks ago. The scenarios which concern Naja Melan and myself (and ???) should not simply be dismissed as too implausible to be worth trying to prevent. I think Melan's thread is rather prescient in view of "Comodogate": ... estion.ars ... lent-https ... ompromise/ ... forgeries/ ... ompromise/ ... rtificatesOne of the fake certs acquired by the bad guys would have enabled them to mount a MITM attack on anyone trying to install updates to Iceweasel/Firefox add-ons via, which I think certainly suggests that the alleged state actor intended to tamper with at least some software.

(EDIT: important new developments in that story: ... festo.html ... y-attacker ... aks_cover/ ... o-hack.arsBriefly, an anon who claims to be Iranian and who claims to have acted alone, and who suggests that he has some connection with political dissidents inside Iran, has claimed to have been the Comodo affiliate cracker. At least one pentester finds the claim plausible. It woudl explain several aspects of the breach which did not appear consistent with Comodo's conclusion that the breach was sponsored by the Iranian government.)

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Here's one of them:

<keybind key="C-F10">
<action name="Execute">

It's supposed to make it so I type ctrl+F10 to switch to a steampunk wallpaper I have. I can do the script from the command prompt, but I can't get the keybinding to work. Anybody know why? Will Openbox not allow for scripts to be in the rc.xml file?

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generate keys:


openssl genrsa 4096 > private-key.pem
openssl rsa -pubout < private-key.pem
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encrypt the file:


openssl rsautl -encrypt -pubin -inkey public-key.pem -in

I must use public/ private key pair (without any password) and I must use OpenSSL. But I can use any algorithm other than RSA (not sure which one to use and how).

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