Server :: Benefits To Creating Multiple Partitions For RAID1 Setups?

Dec 21, 2010

I am rebuilding a bunch of servers and want to do it right. They are Dell R200s and R300s with on-board LSI SAS1068E SCSI controllers with 2 SATA drives. The only RAID level supported on these cards is RAID 1. So, to the server, we have 148GB of space to deal with. They currently run 32-bit Ubuntu 8.10; I will be installing x64 Ubuntu 10.04.

I have always seen that it is best practice to partition in such a way that /boot, /var/log, /temp, and /home for example are separated out from /. Usually this is on a RAID5 or higher box. Is there any benefit to doing that sort of thing on a RAID1 box? I realize that this is in some ways a matter of opinion, but I would like the opinion of folks with experience. I'm pretty new to Linux in general.

The main services running on these boxes are Apache2, Tomcat6, MySQL, and Java.

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Ubuntu :: Multiple Monitor Setups - Best Graphics Card Brand - Series To Use?

May 20, 2010

I'm planning my next desktop build (currently only have a laptop that is falling apart), and one of the features I'm really looking forward to is multiple monitors. I'm thinking a 1920x1200 center monitor and two 1600x1200 on either side, but I'm not decided just yet. I don't know if I really need that resolution.

I have a few specific questions though. The only time I've ever messed with multiple monitors is way back when I had Windows, so I'm not sure what to expect on Ubuntu.

1: What is the best Graphics card brand/series to use? I've seen that ATI has more powerful hardware than nVidia for the same price range, but nVidia seems to support Linux better. I'm using an ATI card in my laptop now and have never had any problems with it (with either open source or proprietary drives, other than open source drivers didn't do well with 3d). I would also like these GPUs to be running F@H while I'm away, so GFLOPS is just important as gaming performance.

2: Since I want to use 3 monitors, I assume I should get 3 of the same graphics card or a card with 3 identical outputs (do those exist?).

Or can this be done some other way. For example, a more powerful card for the center monitor, and less powerful cards for the other two. Do those need to be the same brand, or could I use, for example, ATI and nVidia cards on the same desktop simultaneously?

3: Is it possible to have a virtual console on one monitor with a desktop on the other two, or do I need to set up a terminal on the desktop to use that monitor?

4: How can I run fullscreen SDL games with multiple monitors? Will it only show on one screen or stretch across them all? Is it possible to have a fullscreen game running on one monitor with the desktop visible on the others? How would the mouse focus work with that? Or does it just all depend on how I setup the monitors?

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Debian Configuration :: Multiple Partition Setups Other Than Resistance To Data Loss In Crashes?

Feb 25, 2010

What are the advantages of the multiple partition setups other than resistance to data loss in crashes? Is there any other reason to have a special partition just for your boot directory (kernel files and config) than surviving a major crash?

Also, is it possible to make the Debian installer accept an existing set of partitions? Or even alter the size of the automatically created partitions? Does expert mode let you control the partitions? How many other very detailed things would I have to know to use expert mode, though?

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Server :: Creating A System Less Reliant On NFS Served Partitions

Feb 8, 2011

My chief file server (Dell PE R300) died last week with a disk error, and because it serves the /usr/local and /home partitions via NFS to my ~60 desktops, nobody could do any work until I managed to rig up another server and pull data off the backups. I'm using RHEL 4.To avoid this in future my plan is to knock up a dual server solution with DRDB and Heartbeat.In the meantime, is there a better way to allow desktop users to carry on working as normal, without relying on the file server too much? i.e. something better than NFS but not LDAP (I don't want to implement this just yet as the organisation as a whole may do this in the future)? My users need to be able to access the same home area on any linux desktop managed by me.Also, to implement DRDB/Heartbeat, it might be best to have the home areas on an external array, is that right? Can anybody recommend some hardware?

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Server :: Creating Multiple Logical Groups Out Of Physical Volume?

Apr 26, 2010

How to create multiple Logical Groups out of a single Physical Volume? Here is the Physical Volume I have created:

# pvdisplay
--- Physical volume ---
PV Name /dev/sda9
VG Name myVG1
PV Size 54.88 MB / not usable 2.88 MB
Allocatable yes
PE Size (KByte) 4096
Total PE 13
Free PE 11
Allocated PE 2
PV UUID bon4Ao-vmgC-aP1h-EC9X-w3tN-YXNu-0N2dAw

This is how I am creating a Logical Group out of the above Physical Volume:

# vgcreate myVG1 -s 4m /dev/sda9

# vgdisplay
--- Volume group ---
VG Name myVG1
System ID
Format lvm2
Metadata Areas 1
Metadata Sequence No 5
VG Access read/write
VG Status resizable
Cur LV 2
Open LV 1
Max PV 0
Cur PV 1
Act PV 1
VG Size 52.00 MB
PE Size 4.00 MB
Total PE 13
Alloc PE / Size 2 / 8.00 MB
Free PE / Size 11 / 44.00 MB
VG UUID O6ljYC-bflz-EUTd-nf34-8gYe-Fh39-Bh3cOg

But I am unable to create one more Logical Group out of this Physical Volume. Can we accomplish it? Or do we always extend our current Logical Group to utilize the available space of a Physical Volume?

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General :: Creating A RAID1 Partition With Mdadm On Ubuntu?

Jan 28, 2010

I'm trying to set up a RAID1 partition on my Ubuntu 9.10 workstation.On this dual-boot system, Ubuntu is running from a separate drive (/dev/sdc - an SSD that is quite small, which is why I need more disk space). Besides that, there are two traditional 500 GB hard drives, which have Windows 7 installed (I want to keep the Windows installation intact), and about half of the space unallocated. This space is where I want to set up a single, large RAID1 partition for Linux.

(This, to my understanding, would be software RAID, whereas the Windows partitions are on hardware RAID - I hope this isn't a problem... Edit: See Peter's comment. I guess this shouldn't be a problem since I see both drives separately on Linux.)On both disks, /dev/sda and /dev/sdb, I created, using fdisk, identical new partitions of type "Linux raid autodetect" to fill up the unallocated space.

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 1 10 80293+ de Dell Utility
/dev/sda2 * 11 106 768000 7 HPFS/NTFS


But so is "Device or resource busy" when trying to create the RAID array. Quite strange.

Update: Could the device mapper have something to do with this? How do /dev/mapper and dmraid relate to all this mdadm stuff anyway? Both provide software RAID, but.. differently? Sorry for my ignorance here. Under /dev/mapper/ there are some device files that, I think, somehow match the 3 Windows RAID partitions (sd{a,b}1 through sd{a,b}3). I don't know why there are four of these arrays though.

$ ls /dev/mapper/
control isw_dgjjcdcegc_ARRAY1 isw_dgjjcdcegc_ARRAY3
isw_dgjjcdcegc_ARRAY isw_dgjjcdcegc_ARRAY2

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Ubuntu :: Finish Creating Raid1 Ramdisk/hdd Partition?

Mar 8, 2011

After some hours of googling, I've managed to increase the size of the default ramdisks (/dev/ram0-16) to 1 GiB each, I raided them together with mdadm to try it out, then created a filesyste, mounted it etc etc. No problems. The problem comes when I used gparted to move my windows partition over and in the unallocated space (1 GiB), I created an unformatted partition (/dev/sda2)Now when I try to create the raid array I get the following:

:~$ sudo mdadm --create /dev/md0 -l 1 -n 2 /dev/ram0 /dev/sda2
mdadm: Cannot open /dev/sda2: Device or resource busy


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CentOS 5 :: Resizing Software RAID1 Partitions

Oct 22, 2009

I have software RAID 1 on two physical discs. There are now 4 md -partitions (md0 ... md3), which are used in such as / and /home among others. Now current size of /home (md3) is starting to be full, and since / (md1) has more than plenty of free space I decided to fix the situation by shrinking / (md1) partition to free 40 Gigs of space and then growing /home (md3) partition for that 40 Gigs.

I already checked for some info using mdadm and got the following:

Now I would need some support on HOW exactly should I do this resizing since it is on RAID partitions.

Would it be good to use resize2fs to modify the filesystem sizes and mdadm to configure the partition sizes. Or could I perhaps get over this even easier by using GPartED (in case it supports my RAID)? Has anyone here done similar resizing on software RAID1 partitions?

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Ubuntu :: Creating A Command To Open Multiple Terminal Windows That SSH Into The Same Server?

Apr 7, 2010

Every time I boot up ubuntu I usually open 3 terminal windows and ssh into the same server. I would like to either click a shortcut, or run a single terminal command that will do the equivalent.

I came across the "gnome-terminal" command, but I was unable to get it to trigger an ssh command.

Ideally I would like to have a script that I pass in the number of windows I want to open and the server I would like to ssh into for each window.

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Ubuntu :: Benefits Of Setting Up Own DNS Server?

Nov 5, 2010

I've found plenty of how to's and information on setting up a DNS Server, but what I can't find is how it would benefit me? So, that's just what I'm asking here. How would having my own DNS Server benefit me?

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Red Hat / Fedora :: Benefits Of Using RHEL 5.5 Instead Of F8 On Server?

Jun 14, 2010

I have to investigate the technical benefits of using RHEL 5.5 instead of Fedora 8 on our servers. So any specific reasons with proper justification?

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Ubuntu Installation :: Creating Partitions Using Fdisk?

Sep 30, 2010

I have a dell poweredge 2950 server which had red hat on it. I have installed ubuntu on top of it. I have replaced master boot record during the installation of ubuntu as I dont want use red hat anymore. During the installation it asked me for the space I wanted to give for Ubuntu and I provided 10GB. Now I can use only 10GB of my harddrive until I mount other partitions correct?

So when I type sudo fdisk -l I get the below printed:

Disk /dev/sda: 146.2 GB, 146163105792 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 17769 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


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General :: Creating Image Of Drive Partitions

Jan 6, 2011

I have what I thought was a simple task of creating ISO images of my Windows 7 system partion and boot partiton (the C drive) on my physical hard drive that I could use to load Windows 7 onto a virtual machine. Anyway, I'm running Ubuntu off the CD drive and I can see my drive partions (checked using the fdisk -l command). I have tried many iterations of the mkisofs command, but no matter what I do I get the error message: unable to open disk image file 'dev/sdb/win7sys.iso'. I don't understand why it's trying to open an ISO file it is supposed to be creating. The -o FILE option sets the output file name, so the message makes no sense to me. Below is an example of a simple and longer version with more options that I have tried to create an image of my sytem partiton (sda1) and save it on an external drive (sdb) with the file name: win7sys.iso (the next step I think would be to create or merge both partition images as one iso file for the VM). But I can't get past this error.

Can anybody tell me what I'm doing wrong?

sudo mkisofs -o dev/sdb/win7sys.iso /dev/sda1

sudo sudo mkisofs -input-charset iso8859-1 -V win7sys -o dev/sdb/win7sys.iso /dev/sda1

* Note that the output after the -o parameter is the desired destination /dev/sdb (my external drive) for the image file and /dev/sda1 is my Windows 7 system or boot partition (sda2 is what Windows sees as the C drive).

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Slackware :: Creating Partitions On New Lenovo Notebook?

May 27, 2010

I'm trying to create some Linux partitions to install Slackware on my Lenovo W510 notebook and I'm getting some partition "errors" when using fdisk or cfdisk during the Slackware install. I have a feeling this is due to the hidden system restore partition and was wondering how others have dealt with this.

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OpenSUSE Install :: Creating Ghost Images Of Partitions?

Jan 19, 2010

I have been using GHOST for quite a few years to back up my Windoze partitions from NTFS to a series of images on a fat32 partition. I usually boot off a DOS7 bootable CD and simply ghost over to the fat32 partition.

I am rebuilding my laptops and desktops to dual boot Windows7 and Suse 11.2

My goal is to create restore images from my NTFS and ext3 partitions into directories on the fat32 partition for a restoration to my "gold baseline" build after any corruption.

My partition layout is below. This is output from gdisk.exe in DOS7. It's an 80gig drive.

1 = Windows-7
2 = /boot
3 = swap
5 = /
6 = /fat32


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Ubuntu Installation :: Creating 4KB Aligned Partitions During 10.04 Install?

May 1, 2010

I'm currently running a Ubuntu 9.10 64bit machine with one of those 2TB WD disks that does have 4KB blocks.Unfortunately the current partition layout is misaligned, so I plan to back up my home directory and start fresh with a 10.04 install, trying to make the partitions aligned as suggested here:what I'm wondering is, does the 10.04 partitioning program take care of the alignment today or I have to resort doing manual partitioning with a separate tool?

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Ubuntu :: Creating A Disk Image / Archive Of Old Partitions?

Jun 30, 2010

I am installing Linux on some spare space I left over from my previous two Windows installations.

From within Linux, what's the most risk-free way of imaging these two partitions and saving them to a single image file or archive? I want to preserve the entire partition because I have no idea what I may have forgotten to copy. What is the most suitable program that can do this?

Is there any way to run the partition in a virtual machine at a later date?

After this is done, I want to delete those old partitions and extend my Linux ones.

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General :: Creating Multiple Directories?

Mar 28, 2010

I need to create subdirectories in about 300 existing directories - the subdirectory will have the same name in all 300 existing directories. How do I do this using the mkdir command using a regular expression or globbing?

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Server :: System Image Of Intel Server RAID1?

Aug 2, 2011

I have an Intel server, which has it's two SATA HDD's in "Intel Embedded Server RAID Technology 5.4" RAID1 volume. How to proceed with a system image in case two of those SATA HDD's fail at the same time? Should one take the first HDD of RAID1 volume, connect it to another machine and execute:


# ddrescue /dev/sda1 /media/External/image_of_first_hdd /media/External/log_of_first_hdd
* HDD from the problematic RAID1 volume would be recognised as /dev/sda1 behind new machine
* /media/External/ is a mount point for large external HDD in the new machine
* log_of_first_hdd would be the log file

..and then take the second HDD to another machine and execute:


# ddrescue /dev/sda1 /media/External/image_of_second_hdd /media/External/log_of_second_hdd

how to make system image using ddrescue in case disks are in "Intel Embedded Server RAID Technology 5.4" RAID1?

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Red Hat / Fedora :: Multiple Partitions - 14 ?

Feb 17, 2011

After installing Fedora 14 and opting to overwrite the whole drive with the new operating system I think I see multiple partitions that I did not create. fdisk -l shows:

PHP Code:

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Red Hat / Fedora :: Creating User In Multiple Groups?

Aug 7, 2009

I created a user and I want the particular user in multiple groups. How Should I and after creating the user,If I want to delete that user from a particular group.

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Networking :: Creating Own Network Program For Multiple OS

Nov 19, 2009

I have some novice to intermediate programming skills from a past life. What I want to do is create a program and run it on two separate computers to just get them communicating together over the network on a basic level. I would like to do this in a language that doesn't limit me to a specific OS, this way I can have a linux and windows computer talking. However, I would prefer a language that can be useful down the road as well. My second inspiration, next to networking, is web design and web programming, which I hope to dig into as well eventually.

I'm not aiming to do anything overtly-complicated. One example that comes to mind would be a program that forwards any typed characters on one computer over the network and displays them on the other, and vice-versa. I guess the program would run over TCP/IP. However, it would be nice to learn how to do this in a language that not only works on multiple OSes, but also has the ability to allow me to program my own communication protocol, aside from TCP/IP, down the road. My intention with all this is to learn some network programming for fun.

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Software :: Creating PDF's From Multiple Files Of Different Formats

Oct 3, 2010

I have read alot about exporting or printing to PDF using open office. Haven t tried it but its pretty standard to be able to do that from a word processor so I'm not worried about is an example of what I need to do. I just put together my wifes resume. I had the cover sheet in .doc I had the resume in .doc I had a pdf of some ground plans for large scale gardens she had done and I had a few new pix in jpeg.
I was able to go into Lightening PDF hit create new, pull all those files in, sort them in the order I needed and it created a single mutipage .pdf from those files.

Any luck on finding something like that for linux? That would be just about the last piece of software (If I can make wings work for me) that I need to start testing ubuntu as a primary operating system.

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Programming :: Creating Multiple Processes Using Fork

Oct 23, 2010

As an assignment i was doing a program to create two process using fork and pass messages between them using message queue.Did it worked well until my friend tried to copy it using scp.suddenly all hell broke loose as processes without ran syncronisation ie. in tech terms the process just wont wait wen a message queue is keeps on executing randomly.but after a reboot .. everything worked fine. until again i tried to do scp on my system on purpose. and again the program just went mad.

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Fedora Servers :: Script For Creating Multiple Users?

Feb 7, 2011

I need to create a lot of users locally on my server.I have these info:username:GID:UID.How I can make a "for cycle" for make a multiple useradd? (useradd -u UID -g GID -m /home/USERNAME -s /bin/bash USERNAME)I tried to do this:

touch userlist.txt (UID:GID:USERNAME)


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General :: How To Manage / Create Partitions For Multiple OS

Aug 3, 2011

How do I divide my hard drive into multiple OS'es/partitions for my test machine? For example:
Win XP
Win 7
Can Linux'es share swap area? I was told to leave the first primary for the grub and linux cores.

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Ubuntu :: Multiple Partitions Shown In Nautilus?

Jan 4, 2010

For two of my partitions on sda (they are NTFS parts) I have configured them via the NTFS Configuration Tool to mount at boot. This is OK - I can see them in Places, Computer; they are listed together with the mounted icon to the right. However, there is also two other partitions listed - that are not shown as mounted - with the same label name. (I can also see these duplicate parts listed if I click on Places ad look down at the various devices attached under Computer). If I right click on these unmounted parts I see there is a greyed out option to Remove. How do I remove these duplicate partitions?

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Ubuntu Installation :: Multiple Grubs And Partitions Of Same HDD?

Mar 3, 2011

I searched through with several different terms and couldn't find it.I recently got a DELL Inspiron B120 laptop that had Windows 2000 on it as its sole OS. I'm refurbishing it to some degree. It needs a new LCD Screen and a Wireless Lan card; but that's not important here, I don't think.I'm running it headless and connecting to my desktop through X11VNC.

I decided to put the live disk Ubuntu 10.04 on it and see if I liked it. I decided yes, and went for the install.
Before it installed, it asked me how I wanted to partition the drive. It showed me examples, and I decided to keep the Windows 2000 on there, along with the little DELL diagnostics, etc. part and divide the 40GB drive up into pieces: 18GB for Win2k, 4GB for Dell, and 18GB for Ubuntu 10.04.Once installed I wanted to change the timeout for the GRUB to longer than 3 seconds before it boots the top choice (which is Ubuntu).

I noticed when I could catch it; that it was titled GNU Grub 1.98. I'm not really familiar with multiple GRUBs, so I didn't think about it. Then after a few days, I started getting updates for Ubuntu. The first one was the Ubuntu 10.04.2 LTS, kernel 2.6.32-28-generic from the original kernel 2.6.32-24-generic. Then it went to kernel 2.6.32-29-generic, and yesterday to kernel 2.6.32-30-generic.

That's fine; but the GRUB list is still saying 2.6.32-28-generic as the most recent. Also, the last update asked me if I wanted to create a menu.lst file.I thought I had a GRUB.cfg file that had the list of boots...But I answered yes anyway, and installed the GRUB menu.lst. I changed the timeout to 15 seconds in menu.lst; but the list is still showing as the GNU Grub 1.98 and the list of boots is still topped with 2.6.32-28-generic.I have no idea what's going on now; nor how to update it so that I use the GRUB with the menu.lst and delete or suspend the GNU Grub 1.98.

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Software :: Mounting Images With Multiple Partitions?

Jul 12, 2010

Say I have an image of a file system. I made it with dd by copying it off my USB stick. e.g. "sudo dd if=/dev/sdb1 of=./image.ext2" I can mount said image with the command: "sudo mount -t ext2 -o loop ./image.ext2 /mnt/" Now, say instead of copying a partition with dd, I copy a whole drive. e.g. "sudo dd if=/dev/sdb of=./image.img". sdb had 2 partitions on it. How can I mount those separate partitions without copying that image back onto the USB drive?

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Software :: Using Rsync For Copying Multiple Partitions?

Sep 1, 2009

Regularly I find myself cloning a machine using rsync. I find it understandable, reliable and fast, faster than dd, and I don't have to worry about different partition sizes etc. However, usually I partition my hard disk in a number of partitions:


When I start with a new, empty machine, I start up with a USB stick or live CD, and my new, empty hard disk becomes /dev/sdb. After creating the 4 partitions I have /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb2... etc. My root directory is on the disk I used for booting, usually /dev/sda. So, in order to access my newly created partitions, I mount them on the /mnt/directory of my root:

mounted now later
/mnt/sdb1 /
/mnt/sdb2 /home
/mnt/sdb3 /usr
/mnt/sdb4 /var

In other words, I mount now /dev/sdb1 on /mnt/sdb1, while after copying /dev/sdb1 will become my root directory, /dev/sdb2 become my /home directory, etc. When I start the resync process to copy the image from a remote machine, I have to copy all 4 partitions separately. First the root directory, excluding /home, /usr, /var, then /home, then /usr, /var, like this:

action 1:
rsync --exclude='/home' --exclude='/var' --exclude='/usr' my.remote.machine:/ /dev/sdb1/

action 2:
rsync my.remote.machine:/home /dev/sdb2/

action 3:
rsync my.remote.machine:/usr /dev/sdb3/

action 4:
rsync my.remote.machine:/var /dev/sdb4/

That is a lot of typing and waiting. Sometimes I have a different partition scheme so it is not really feasible to write a script to use always. Now the Question: is there a smarter way of mounting the newly formatted disk (/dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb2... etc) in my root tree so I can perform the rsync copy in just one time, without all the excludes, but assuring that the correct source partitions end up on the correct destination partitions?

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