General :: Calling Gurus And Noobs - Review Filesystem Hierarchy Explanation?

Jun 10, 2010

Back when I was first learning Linux, one of the questions that I kept wondering about was "what are all these files and directories for?" I couldn't find a resource that would explain them in a digestible manner. Specifically, I was looking for one that would allow me to look at a Linux filesystem interactively, collapsing and expanding folders to look at just the ones I was interested in at the moment. So later, when I got the opportunity, I wrote it.

But despite a ton of research, I'm still not totally knowledgeable on the subject. The most important thing I'm looking for right now is for experienced Linux/Unix people to tell me where I got stuff wrong, and for newbies to tell me how useful it is to them and which things need clarification. I'm also interested in technical and graphical ways to improve usability, like better icons, layout, etc. I know I need to be able to collapse long descriptions, but what would you like to see? The Works Cited list and a full introduction are still on the way as of this writing.

Without further ado: Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Explanation. You'll need a fairly recent browser that can handle XSLT; the actual info is stored as XML, and transformed into HTML with an XSLT stylesheet. This is still a work in progress, and I'll be updating it as the thread progresses.

Finally, would people be interested in collaborating with me on this, as an open-source project? I've never done anything like that, and I'm not sure how much time I'll be able to give it in the future, but I really think this should be continued and expanded.

Edit: Works Cited and decent intro are now in place.

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General :: Message To Cali-Forn-ia Gurus?

Jan 12, 2010

It's time you Cali-for-ia Gurus come out of the woodwork and make it happen out there. I would imagine there is more Gurus in California per square inch than any place in the U.S., except maybe, Raleigh North Carolina You now have your marching orders from the CIO of your state , so lets make it happen. You have heard that old saying "what ever California does So goes the Nation" Read article below and get scoop.[URL]...

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General :: Rolling Distros Geared Towards Noobs-novice?

Jul 20, 2010

Wondering which rolling release distros are recommended for noobs to novices. Ease of installation and stability would be key features.

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General :: Explanation For TOP Command?

Jun 2, 2011

I need explanation for top command. If ran the TOP command,on top it shows few options like


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General :: Explanation Of Command To Uppercase First Letter Of Filename

Jun 10, 2010

I'm trying to learn to rename files with the command line, and after browsing around a lot of pages I finally found a command that uppercases the first letter of a file, but the problem is that I want to understand the meaning of each command. The command is:
for i in *; do new=`echo "$i" | sed -e 's/^./U&/'`; mv "$i" "$new";done
I understand the 'for' kinda... but not the 'echo' or '`' and especially the sed command.

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General :: Block Size Explanation In Plain English?

Apr 8, 2011

what block size means in plain English? I know block size 4k has 2 TB of file size limit and 1024 has around 17 GB. How do they calculate this?

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General :: Review For Ubuntu 2.5 Ultimate?

Mar 22, 2010

some one using ubuntu 2.5 ultimate speakout about the stability of it

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General :: UNIX File System Hierarchy?

Oct 3, 2010

What are the directories and files in Unix file-system that has default user permission set. For eg. home directory of a user can't be seen by the other users on the system without his permission. In the same way what are the other directories that by default has user permission set at the time user account has opened. Eg. /etc,/bin or what

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General :: Review The Boot-time Info That's Going To The Console?

Feb 18, 2011

I'd really like to be able to examine all the information that flys off the top of my terminal when my system boots (off of fd0, the only way I've done it, so far): review of "similar threads" yields nothing; seemingly not a man pages item; have not found any how-to's that cover this; the daemons for logging are third-to-the-last before logon prompt (and still displayed, the ONLY reason I know THAT); seems like it should be a compile-time sw-switch settng (sub-optimal since I'm still not comfortable with compiling kernels); but I was hoping it's already being captured in some log file somewhere that I'm as yet unaware exists. I do realize that if I had a printing console, this would be unnecessary.

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General :: In Folder Hierarchy / Find Last Updated File

Jun 2, 2011

I have a folder hierarchy with many sub-folder levels under a set of parent folders. Based on the application design and business use, files are written to different locations on a daily basis. I want to find out the last updated file in the folder structure and its location at any given time. How can I do that?

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General :: Tar Ball A Directory Hierarchy With Soft Links In System?

May 4, 2010

Can you please tell me how can I tar ball/compress a directory hierarchy with soft links in Linux?

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General :: Copy Entire File System Hierarchy From One Drive To Another?

Jul 7, 2011

I would like to copy the entire file system hierarchy from one drive to another..i.e contents of each directory as well as regular files in Linux platform. Would be gratefull to know the best way to do that with possibly Linuxes in-built functions. The file system is a ext family.

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General :: Directory Hierarchy Getting Repeated In Mvfs File System

Feb 9, 2011

I have a mvfs file system mounted.


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Debian :: Differences With *buntus That Annoy Noobs?

Mar 8, 2010

I am trying to delete some files to make space. But, I made the mistake of 'moving to the trash bin Whoops Doing this in Debian requires running through hoops trying to find files that went into a black hole. In Ubuntu, I move it to the Trash bin.I empty the trash bin and I'M DONE. REPEAT: I'M THEN DONE. Why, why, why, make it so hard? If I should do it a different way, how should I delete files so that they are GONE so that I can free up some disk space? I don't know where the files went now and when I run 'df -h', it shows exactly the same before I 'deleted' the files. I assume they exist someplace.

I then tried:
rm -fr /home/username/.Trash

Checking again using 'df -h' shows no change. I'm confused. Please help and excuse my frustration. I guess I'm still too raw as I don't do these tasks very often. I have to do some major copying soon, though, as I want to copy many many files from my home partition to an external drive. I hope I can receive some help/support for that if I have trouble. Also, please suggest some steps for freeing up disk space from moving/copying files to another drive to deleting files. I recall there are some commands that might delete temp files, too (disk 'clean' type?).

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Slackware :: Latest Mdadm Hasn't Escaped The Attention Of The Gurus For -current?

Dec 25, 2010

I just wanted to make sure the latest mdadm hasn't escaped the attention of the Slackware gurus for -current. I bet it hasn't I'm basically in the same situation as described here:[URL]...

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Ubuntu Networking :: Remote Desktop Control For Noobs?

May 27, 2010

I need to remotely control my parents' computers to tech support them.My parents use Windows (XP) while I use Linux (Sidux) intuitive application since this is my first attempt at this:

-preferably thru browser

TeamViewer and LogMeIn turn up in my search. Seems like these two are the most popular. How do they stack up to each other?

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General :: Explanation Of Here Scripts As Well As The "cat" Command

Aug 13, 2011

I am currently in the very early stages of learning how to use the shell and write scripts (and I mean really early- only been at it for 3 days or so). Now I am following a tutorial, and I have reached a section about the so-called "here scripts" or "here documents".


Now what I don't understand is how those two scripts, once run, produce the same output.. I believe this is because I don't understand the "cat"-command (which is not quite useful, considering it seems to be a very practical and widely used command).

So would anyone care to explain to me what it does in this specific script as well as alternative applications? (And please refrain from just quoting the man-pages.. I have read them multiple times, and I still just don't get it - It's probably very simple,

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General :: Copy Folder Hierarchy / Recreate All Folders From One Directory Without Copying Over Contents Of Folder?

Jul 2, 2010

Is there a way to recreate all the folders from one directory to another without copying over the contents of the folder? I've been trying to do something like this,

Code:for i in `ls $X`; do mkdir $PATH/$i; doneUnfortunately $i is deliminated by whitespaces in the filenames and not the actual folders.

$X contains only other folders so I dont have to worry about regular files but any kind of more "advanced" solution would work.

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General :: Detect Filesystem Type (can't Mount Filesystem Image .img)

Mar 11, 2011

I am trying to mount a file image, like this

mount -o loop /tmp/apps.img /media/apps

But I get the following:

mount: you must specify the filesystem type

I try ext3:

mount -o loop /tmp/apps.img /media/apps -t ext3

dmesg says:

error: can't find ext3 filesystem on dev loop6.

I've also tried ext2, vfat etc. How can I detect the filesystem type of apps.img?

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General :: External Drive Read Only - WARNING! Running E2fsck On A Mounted Filesystem May Cause SEVERE Filesystem Damage

Mar 24, 2010

I've had a look at some similar threads but as I'm very new to linux they're already a bit technical for me. Sorry, this calls for someone with patience. I gather from other threads that disconnecting an external drive without unmounting is a no-no, and this seems to be the likely cause. Now the disk is read only and I'm unable to change any settings through the usual control panel on ubuntu. I'm just not familiar with the terminal instructions. I tried to cut and past a few command lines from other threads but I got some warnings that proceding could damage data. Like this one: WARNING! Running e2fsck on a mounted filesystem may cause SEVERE filesystem damage.

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Slackware :: 13.1 - A Distro That Gets Out Of The Way (review)

Jul 10, 2010

13.1 - a distro that gets out of the way (review)


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Slackware :: How To Review Boot Messages

Mar 16, 2010

EDIT: not fully solved; there is (at time of writing) still an issue about bootlogd buffering until the logfile is accessible but that's probably as far as we are going to get for now, until someone peeks into the bootlogd source code.

Is it possible to review boot messages after boot? Kernel messages are available via dmesg (and many are logged early in the rc.M script by the /bin/dmesg -s 65536 > /var/log/dmesg) but many console boot messages are not kernel messages. During boot, messages can be viewed using Shift+PgUp but when the rc.S script finishes, init starts an agetty on tty1 which prints a login prompt. Then tty1 is no longer the console and Shift+PgUp cannot be used to scroll back through the boot messages. Any delayed boot messages do not have effective carriage returns so "marquee" across the screen, one following another, a line below.

Is it possible to leave tty1 as the console by de-configuring the tty1/agetty line in inittab, thus allowing Shift+PgUp to be used to scroll back through older messages and allowing proper horizontal alignment for delayed boot messages? I would try it but the inittab line x1:4:respawn:/etc/rc.d/rc.4 runs /usr/X11R6/bin/xdm and this grabs the first unused tty<n>. The xdm man page and xdm config file comments do not reveal whether it is possible to make xdm use a specific tty<n>.

Another solution may be something like the sysvinit binary that intercepts all console writes and then dumps them to log at the end of the boot process but if it were that easy or useful it would already be done and publicised (wouldn't it?).

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Ubuntu :: Review Tutorial On Sharing 3G Over WiFi

Feb 15, 2011

I've spent some time trying to get my 3G card connection shared over WIFI and despite the number of sites out there I had a lot of problems putting it all together. So I wrote a small guide about it, but due to several issues (time/bandwidth) I can't retest it from scratch.I was wondering if someone could take a look at it and make suggestions or corrections.The idea is to take your 3G data card and turn your WIFI into an access point so you can connect other devices to it for internet access.

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Software :: New Version Of Lit2PDF Script For Use/Review

Dec 1, 2010

I posted a completed version of it a while back and just wanted to post the latest stable version. I'm using it as a pet project to teach myself proper BASH scripting, but also to help my wife get .lit e-books onto her Sony E-Reader since it seems to do a better job of converting the files than Calibre(For some reason some of our books won't convert in Calibre and they will with this). I've added some zenity windows to make it just a little more friendly in regards to selecting the file you want to convert. You no longer have to drag it into the terminal window and make sure you've got quotes around it if there's a space. It's also now completely BASH instead of python. I'm a "beginner" programmer/scripter, so some review, comments, and constructive criticism are welcome because everything I know I've taught myself with Google and experimentation.

To install it, just grab the tarball, extract it, make the files executable if they aren't already when you download them, and then run the file in the terminal. I tried to be very descriptive and informative in the changelog.txt and Readme.txt files as well so I hope those suit their purposes well.

P.S. If you're wondering about the versioning, I just adopted the same philosophy as the Ubuntu community and just made the date the version number. 10.11.30 equals November 30th, 2010.

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Red Hat / Fedora :: Filesystem Check After Power Outage - WARNING: "Running E2fsck On A Mounted Filesystem May Cause SEVERE Filesystem Damage"

May 18, 2011

I am very new to linux, and I have a question regarding the filesystem check (fsck). The power recently went out and when I tried to restart linux the following error appears:

*/dev/sda1 contains file system w/errors, check forced it then goes on to say..

*An error occured during the file system check. Dropping you to a shell; the system will reboot when you leave the shell. Give root password for maintenance (or type Control-D to continue) I wasn't sure what to do, but checked some other online forums and they suggested running fsck manually - so I typed in the root password - and used the command, "fsck -A -V ; echo == $? ==" it then gave the following message

*WARNING!!! Running e2fsck on a mounted filesystem may cause SEVERE filesystem damage
*Would you like to continue (y/n)

Again, I wasn't sure what to do so i just checked no. I then manually turned off the computer and was prompted at the beginning to press Alt-3. I was brought to another screen and it informed me one of the drives was degraded and suggested rebuilding the array. I tried doing this, but it still brings me back to the original error of, "/dev/sda1 contains file system w/errors, check forced," and the process continues.

Also, when I tried to rebuild the array, I didn't backup any of the data on our home directory before doing this (which was probably a big mistake). After being prompted to type the root password, I was able to give the ls command and look at all the directories...the home directory where our data was stored was empty and I am afraid I may have lost some information. Is there a possibility that data was lost when I was trying to rebuild using the old drives?

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Applications :: Browser Download - Firefox Explanation Mentions Lots Of Files That Are Cant Access

Mar 12, 2010

My family have three Linux operated ACER ONE netbooks, all of them need the new Firefox 3.6 download as the old format wont be supported supposedly by ..... etc. I have downloaded the SOFTWARE but cant get it to run, the Firefox explanation mentions lots of files etc that are cant access, nor can I excecute any files once they have been extracted. The same happens with any software but Iv ignored it till now, not having a "modern" browser will make things difficult. I need it explaining simply. On another subject can anyone use facebook chat on Linux

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General :: Calling URL From Shells Script

Jun 13, 2011

I have to call URL from shell script. E.g.: How can I call URL from the shell script.

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General :: Arguments When Calling A Script ?

May 13, 2011

Suddenly, i have problems when i call a script when i use some arguments/variables

Here is my code:


This is my output:


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Fedora Installation :: F11 - Review And Modify Partitioning Layout

Jul 25, 2009

KVM - virtualization
Fedora 11, 32 bit, as guest (VM)
Other guests (VM) - Debian
There is no partition on hard drive
During installation it comes to following page

Installation requires partitioning of your hard drive. The default layout is suitable for most users. Select what space to use and which drives to use as the install target. You can also choose to create your own custom layout.

Drop window
Use entire drive
Replace existing Linux system
Shrink current system
Use free space
Create custom layout
[uncheck] Encrypt system

Select the drive(s) to use for this installation.
(it is grey out)

Advanced storage configuration
How would you like to modify your drive configuration?
(check) Add iSCSI target
[Cancel] [Add drive]
What drive would you like to boot this installation from?
(it is also grey out)
[uncheck] Review and modify partitioning layout

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Ubuntu :: Assign The Hierarchy To Correctly Rank The Data?

May 23, 2011

I want to filter data that has been ranked as A+, A, A-, B+, etc. I want to find items that have rank B or better. I'm finding that awk does not recognize the + or the -; so, I have to filter for < C and manually remove data ranked as B-. I've tried assigning "B+" < B and B < "B-" without success. how to assign the hierarchy to correctly rank the data?

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