Fedora Security :: Attack Sneaks Rootkits Into Kernel

May 7, 2009

Attack Sneaks Rootkits Into Linux Kernel Quote: A researcher at Black Hat Europe this week will demonstrate a more stealthy way to hack Linux

Apr 14, 2009 | 04:21 PM
By Kelly Jackson Higgins
DarkReading

Kernel rootkits are tough enough to detect, but a researcher this week has demonstrated an even sneakier method of hacking Linux. The attack attack exploits an oft-forgotten function in Linux versions 2.4 and above in order to quietly insert a rootkit into the operating system kernel as a way to hide malware processes, hijack system calls, and open remote backdoors into the machine, for instance. At Black Hat Europe this week in Amsterdam, Anthony Lineberry, senior software engineer for Flexilis, will demonstrate how to hack the Linux kernel by exploiting the driver interface to physically addressable memory in Linux, called /dev/mem.

"One of bonuses of this [approach] is that most kernel module rootkits make a lot noise when they are inserting [the code]. This one is directly manipulating" the memory, so it's less noticeable, he says. The /dev/mem "device" can be opened like a file, and you can read and write to it like a text file, Lineberry says. It's normally used for debugging the kernel, for instance.

Lineberry has developed a proof-of-concept attack that reads and writes to kernel memory as well as stores code inside the kernel, and he plans to release a framework at Black Hat that lets you use /dev/mem to "implement rootkit-like behaviors," he says. The idea of abusing /dev/mem to hack the Linux kernel is not really new, he says. "People have known what you can do with these /dev/mem devices, but I have never seen any rootkits with dev/mem before," he says.

Quote: "The problem with kernel-based rootkits is that the rootkit can mitigate [detection] because it has control," he says. "It's a race in the kernel to see who's going to see who first." [URL]

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I've read that there are a lot of rootkits that exist for linux. MS Windows has tools where you can boot a "portable" scanner from a CD and scan your whole Windows installation for rootkits. This way you can even scan boot sectors because you are never actually starting your installed Windows.

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It seems that the monetary system of our society got now more enemy's than friends. Capitalism seems to reach it's end. But my server is serving also ART! Sooner or later we will need to pay copyright even for our thoughts. I was reading today, that the French president wants to punish file sharing as his wife made 3 albums, and wants to get some money ..

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[Code]...

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Quote:

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[code]...

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[Code]....

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Specific question: On several unix-like systems (including Linux), the salt helps make building rainbow tables computationally expensive. It's not enough to guess a password and hash it; the proper salt must be provided as well, or the password will not be discovered.

However, the salt (or the hashed salt) seems to be visible in /etc/shadow. For example:

Code:

foouser:$6$U9a6HdUY$U3qFDMen0wDmL0x5WHm2OWhOgzOZ4MCQxV/oY.i5RhfXCQrLifIVkBpWOd1CbCGimVCjmfxZAaud/sXDf1.mv0:14733:0:99999:7::: So in an offline attack, a rainbow table could be built using precisely that salt, correct? (Yes, I realize /etc/shadow is not readable by non-root users, but I am considering an offline attack.) Building the salt (or the hashed salt) into the hashed password seems to defeat the purpose of using a salt altogether.

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Oct 2, 2010

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Also I was not loose with the security either I had removed unconfined login types (After setting up the system as I needed) meaning I couldn't even run root or sudo and neither could anyone else (asfar as I was aware). I pretty much increased selinux to its maximum boolean strictness and limited the _default_(Me included) account to a user from a _default_ unconfined (to actually be able to log in with the selinux boolean in place). Meaning they "the exploiters" were able to bypass selinux as a user account? How is that possible and even if you do root logon is disabled by selinux too?

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Just a side note you can't just log in to tty4 by default without actively taking up spaces either by other users or your own use. Meaning since the tty login is automated 3 terminals were in use tty1, tty2 and tty3.

Which commands should I run to find out what is being done?

Edit: Just had my F12 x64 live cd taken down twice and had to hard reset as the toolbar disappeared. Took a photo of the last error message. I was just reading a pdf and using firefox at the time.

Is fedora usually this easy to hack?

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Jun 22, 2009

What does this means:

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Quote:

Here are some quick examples of what you could add to your /etc/exports

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b.) how can we trace when this type of attack happened to Apache.

Also I have noticed an entry in Apache error log during attack period

Error Log

[Wed Jul 20 20:28:49 2011] [debug] proxy_util.c(1806): proxy: grabbed scoreboard slot 0 in child 753 for worker http://localhost:8294/
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[Code].....

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